White-breasted Waterhen (Amaurornis phoenicurus) 

(Pennant, 1769)

Figure 1: White-breasted Waterhen (Amaurornis phoenicurus). (Photo courtesy of Kieron Gabriel Ng)


Table of Contents

Introduction

The White-breasted Waterhen is a bold bird that can often be seen foraging openly in both natural and urban habitats such as wetlands, mangroves and even canals.

Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum, 2018. Amaurornis phoenicurus (Pennant, 1769). Available at:http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/dna/organisms/details/474 Accessed on 11 November 2018.

It has a loud, distinctive call that can often be heard in the evenings (Figure 2).

Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum, 2018. Amaurornis phoenicurus (Pennant, 1769). Available at:http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/dna/organisms/details/474 Accessed on 11 November 2018.

This bird is considered as a native species to Singapore and is also found in many different countries.

 Singapore Birds Project, n.d. White-breasted Waterhen. Available at: https://singaporebirds.com/species/white-breasted-waterhen/ Accessed on 11 November 2018.

 According to the IUCN Red List, this species is catagorized as Least Concern (LC), but in Singapore, it is considered as a Common Resident.

Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum, 2018. Amaurornis phoenicurus (Pennant, 1769). Available at:http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/dna/organisms/details/474 Accessed on 11 November 2018.

 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. (2018). White-breasted Waterhen. Available at: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/22692640/95217833#geographic-range Accessed 11 November 2018.


Figure 2: Call of the White-breasted Waterhen. (Taken from Lena Chow)

Chow, L. (2011). Call of the White-breasted Waterhen – Bird Ecology Study Group. Bird Ecology Study Group. Available at: http://www.besgroup.org/2011/03/22/call-of-the-white-breasted-waterhen/ Accessed 21 November 2018.




Etymology

The genus name Amaurornis is derived from the Greek words amauros, meaning dusky or brown, and ornis meaning bird, while the specific epithet phoenicurus is in reference to its red tail.

Jobling, J. (2010). Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: A & C Black, p.43.




Distribution

Singapore Distribution

The White-breasted Waterhen is widely distributed and can be found near water bodies, such as the coastal areas, parks and the offshore islands of Singapore (Figure 3).

Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum, 2018. Amaurornis phoenicurus (Pennant, 1769). Available at:http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/dna/organisms/details/474 Accessed on 11 November 2018.


Figure 3: Distribution of White-breasted Waterhen (indicated by the red landmarks) based on confirmed sightings in Singapore. (Google Maps image made by Sameen with information from Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum)

Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum, 2018. Amaurornis phoenicurus (Pennant, 1769). Available at:http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/dna/organisms/details/474 Accessed on 11 November 2018.

Global Distribution

The White-breasted Waterhen is also native to many countries (Figure 4).

 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. (2018). White-breasted Waterhen. Available at: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/22692640/95217833#geographic-range Accessed 11 November 2018.


Figure 4: Distribution of White-breasted Waterhen across Asia. Range data originally sourced from BirdLife International and NatureServe (2011).

BirdLife International and NatureServe (2011). White-breasted Waterhen (Amaurornis phoenicurus). Xeno-canto.org. Available at: https://www.xeno-canto.org/species/Amaurornis-phoenicurus Accessed 11 November 2018.




Identification

Adults


Figure 5: Adult White-breasted Waterhen. (Taken by Mohamad Zahidi Hamid and labelled by Sameen)

The adult White-breasted Waterhen can be identified by its yellow legs, light green bill, red vent and grey plumage all over its body except for the face, throat and abdomen which are white (Figure 5).

Gopakumar, P. S. and Kaimal, P. P. (2008). Loss of Wetland breeding habitats and population decline of White-breasted Waterhen, Amaurornis Phoenicurus Phoenicurus (Pennent)-A Case Study. Proceedings of Taal 2007: The 12th World Lake Conference, pp.529-536.

Its plumage colouration is unique, thus its identity is not easily confused with other birds.

Gopakumar, P. S. and Kaimal, P. P. (2008). Loss of Wetland breeding habitats and population decline of White-breasted Waterhen, Amaurornis Phoenicurus Phoenicurus (Pennent)-A Case Study. Proceedings of Taal 2007: The 12th World Lake Conference, pp.529-536.

There is also little sexual dimorphism in this species.

Gopakumar, P. S. and Kaimal, P. P. (2008). Loss of Wetland breeding habitats and population decline of White-breasted Waterhen, Amaurornis Phoenicurus Phoenicurus (Pennent)-A Case Study. Proceedings of Taal 2007: The 12th World Lake Conference, pp.529-536.

Juveniles

Figure 6: White-breasted Waterhen juvenile. (Taken from Lee Chiu San and labelled by Sameen)

Juveniles have plumage which is an intermediate of the adult and chick, and can be distinguished from adults by their smaller size and brown feet (Figure 6).

Lee, C. S. (2013). In-between White-breasted waterhen – Bird Ecology Study Group. Besgroup.org Available at: http://www.besgroup.org/2013/03/22/in-between-white-breasted-waterhen/ Accessed 21 November 2018.

Chicks


Figure 7: White-breasted Waterhen chick. (Photo taken by Mohamad Zahidi Hamid and labelled by Sameen)

The White-breasted Waterhen chick can be identified by it black downy feathers, black legs and absence of white colouration at the throat and abdomen (Figure 7).

Gopakumar, P. S. and Kaimal, P. P. (2008). Loss of Wetland breeding habitats and population decline of White-breasted Waterhen, Amaurornis Phoenicurus Phoenicurus (Pennent)-A Case Study. Proceedings of Taal 2007: The 12th World Lake Conference, pp.529-536.




Biology

Habitat

Figure 8: White-breasted Waterhen exploring a grass patch. (Photo taken by Sameen)

This species has been recorded in a wide range of habitats such as wetlands, mangroves, marshes, coastal areas, grasslands, gardens, parks and canals in Singapore.

Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum, 2018. Amaurornis phoenicurus (Pennant, 1769). Available at:http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/dna/organisms/details/474 Accessed on 11 November 2018.

However, this species has been declining in abundance since 1986.

Lim, K. S. (2015). Annual Bird Census 2015. Singapore Bird Group. Available at: https://singaporebirdgroup.wordpress.com/tag/annual-bird-census-2015/ Accessed 27 November 2018.

A possible reason for its decline could be habitat loss due to land reclamation along Singapore's coasts.

Gopakumar, P. S. and Kaimal, P. P. (2008). Loss of Wetland breeding habitats and population decline of White-breasted Waterhen, Amaurornis Phoenicurus Phoenicurus (Pennent)-A Case Study. Proceedings of Taal 2007: The 12th World Lake Conference, pp.529-536.

Diet and Foraging Behaviour

Figure 9: White-breasted Waterhen feeding on a mollusc. (Photo taken by Dr Amar-Singh HSS)

The White-breasted Waterhen is an omnivorous bird with a varied diet consisting of insects, worms, aquatic snails, molluscs, small fish, grass seeds and water plants.

Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum, 2018. Amaurornis phoenicurus (Pennant, 1769). Available at:http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/dna/organisms/details/474 Accessed on 11 November 2018.


Figure 10: White-breasted Waterhen foraging for food. (Photo courtesy of Kieron Gabriel Ng)

The White-breasted Waterhen has three main foraging strategies.

Akhtar, S., Kabir, M. M., Begum, S. and Hasan, M. K. (2015). Activity pattern of white-breasted waterhen (Amaurornis phoenicurus) at Jahangirnagar university campus, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology, 41(2), p.189.

These strategies are foraging and feeding while walking (to capture insects), wading (to consume molluscs and fish) and running.

Akhtar, S., Kabir, M. M., Begum, S. and Hasan, M. K. (2015). Activity pattern of white-breasted waterhen (Amaurornis phoenicurus) at Jahangirnagar university campus, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology, 41(2), p.189.

They maximize foraging after fasting overnight by foraging actively before noon, with peak feeding observed during early morning.

Akhtar, S., Kabir, M. M., Begum, S. and Hasan, M. K. (2015). Activity pattern of white-breasted waterhen (Amaurornis phoenicurus) at Jahangirnagar university campus, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology, 41(2), p.189.

After the first bout of feeding, these birds would then hide to avoid conflict with other species of birds (especially shorebirds in mangroves) that might be foraging in the area, as there is an overlap in diet with these birds.

Akhtar, S., Kabir, M. M., Begum, S. and Hasan, M. K. (2015). Activity pattern of white-breasted waterhen (Amaurornis phoenicurus) at Jahangirnagar university campus, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology, 41(2), p.189.

Predators

Figure 11: Predators of the White-breasted Waterhen. (Top Left: Malayan Water Monitor, Top Right: Domestic Cat, Bottom Left: Crested Goshawk, Bottom Middle: Black-winged Kite feeding on a White-breasted Waterhen chick, Bottom Right: Brahminy Kite. Photos taken by Ria Tan, Sameen, Francis Yap, Francis Yap and Samson Tan respectively. Photos compiled by Sameen)

The White-breasted Waterhen is preyed upon by Malayan Water Monitor (Varanus salvator), Domestic Cat (Felis catus), Crested Goshawk (Accipiter trivirgatus), Black-winged Kite (Elanus caeruleus) and Brahminy Kite (Haliastur indus).

The Biodiversity of Singapore (2018). Amaurornis phoenicurus. Singapore biodiversity online. Available at: https://singapore.biodiversity.online/species/A-Vert-Aves-000020 Accessed 27 November 2018.

Breeding 

Pair Formation

Figure 12: White-breasted Waterhens fighting. (Photo taken by Pathmanath Samaraweera)

Vigorous calls and fights occur among both the male and female birds in the morning and evening during the breeding season and this eventually leads to pair formation.

Gopakumar, P. S. and Kaimal, P. P. (2008). Loss of Wetland breeding habitats and population decline of White-breasted Waterhen, Amaurornis Phoenicurus Phoenicurus (Pennent)-A Case Study. Proceedings of Taal 2007: The 12th World Lake Conference, pp.529-536.

Once the pairs have formed, there is a long courtship period which includes bowing, billing and nibbling displays. Finally, the male mounts the female at the end of the courtship period.

Gopakumar, P. S. and Kaimal, P. P. (2008). Loss of Wetland breeding habitats and population decline of White-breasted Waterhen, Amaurornis Phoenicurus Phoenicurus (Pennent)-A Case Study. Proceedings of Taal 2007: The 12th World Lake Conference, pp.529-536.

Egg Nest

Figure 13: White-breasted Waterhen pair in their nest. (Photo taken by Millie Cher)

The breeding pair then look for nesting sites, and occupy and defend their territory early in the breeding season.

Gopakumar, P. S. and Kaimal, P. P. (2008). Loss of Wetland breeding habitats and population decline of White-breasted Waterhen, Amaurornis Phoenicurus Phoenicurus (Pennent)-A Case Study. Proceedings of Taal 2007: The 12th World Lake Conference, pp.529-536.


The pair then proceed to make nests that are about 5 meters above the ground, and right beside the water body.

Gopakumar, P. S. and Kaimal, P. P. (2008). Loss of Wetland breeding habitats and population decline of White-breasted Waterhen, Amaurornis Phoenicurus Phoenicurus (Pennent)-A Case Study. Proceedings of Taal 2007: The 12th World Lake Conference, pp.529-536.

Egg nests and brood nests are often found near water bodies as water is essential for the breeding and rearing of chicks.

Gopakumar, P. S. and Kaimal, P. P. (2008). Loss of Wetland breeding habitats and population decline of White-breasted Waterhen, Amaurornis Phoenicurus Phoenicurus (Pennent)-A Case Study. Proceedings of Taal 2007: The 12th World Lake Conference, pp.529-536.

 This is because adults have been found to feed their chicks only on areas of land that are wet and chicks often dive underwater to escape predation.

Gopakumar, P. S. and Kaimal, P. P. (2008). Loss of Wetland breeding habitats and population decline of White-breasted Waterhen, Amaurornis Phoenicurus Phoenicurus (Pennent)-A Case Study. Proceedings of Taal 2007: The 12th World Lake Conference, pp.529-536.



Figure 14: White-breasted Waterhen eggs. (Taken by Sourav Mahmud)

Six to seven eggs are laid consecutively in the morning once the nest is completed.

Gopakumar, P. S. and Kaimal, P. P. (2008). Loss of Wetland breeding habitats and population decline of White-breasted Waterhen, Amaurornis Phoenicurus Phoenicurus (Pennent)-A Case Study. Proceedings of Taal 2007: The 12th World Lake Conference, pp.529-536.

The eggs can be identified by their brownish-white shells with reddish-brown spots.

Gopakumar, P. S. and Kaimal, P. P. (2008). Loss of Wetland breeding habitats and population decline of White-breasted Waterhen, Amaurornis Phoenicurus Phoenicurus (Pennent)-A Case Study. Proceedings of Taal 2007: The 12th World Lake Conference, pp.529-536.

The breeding pair is also more aggressive in defending their territory after egg-laying.

Gopakumar, P. S. and Kaimal, P. P. (2008). Loss of Wetland breeding habitats and population decline of White-breasted Waterhen, Amaurornis Phoenicurus Phoenicurus (Pennent)-A Case Study. Proceedings of Taal 2007: The 12th World Lake Conference, pp.529-536.

Both parents participate in incubation of the eggs, which can last from between 19 to 21 days, and all eggs hatch on the same day.

Gopakumar, P. S. and Kaimal, P. P. (2008). Loss of Wetland breeding habitats and population decline of White-breasted Waterhen, Amaurornis Phoenicurus Phoenicurus (Pennent)-A Case Study. Proceedings of Taal 2007: The 12th World Lake Conference, pp.529-536.

Brood Nest

Figure 15: Adult White-breasted Waterhen with chicks. (Photo taken by Dr Amar-Singh HSS)

Once the eggs have hatched, the breeding pair proceeds to make a brood nest (which is larger than the egg nest) within its territory near the water, either on the ground or aboveground.

Gopakumar, P. S. and Kaimal, P. P. (2008). Loss of Wetland breeding habitats and population decline of White-breasted Waterhen, Amaurornis Phoenicurus Phoenicurus (Pennent)-A Case Study. Proceedings of Taal 2007: The 12th World Lake Conference, pp.529-536.

There is substantial parental care, with one parent always roosting with the chicks in the brood nest, and as such, juvenile survivorship is high in this species.

Gopakumar, P. S. and Kaimal, P. P. (2008). Loss of Wetland breeding habitats and population decline of White-breasted Waterhen, Amaurornis Phoenicurus Phoenicurus (Pennent)-A Case Study. Proceedings of Taal 2007: The 12th World Lake Conference, pp.529-536.




Taxonomy and Systematics

Description 

Figure 16: Description of White-breasted Waterhen by Pennant (1769) that was published in Indian Zoology (1790).

Rosie Curran (2016). Indian zoology: Pennant, Thomas, 1726-1798. n 50009492. Internet Archive. Available at: https://archive.org/details/b28767214/page/n89  Accessed 11 November 2018.


In Figure 16, the White-breasted Waterhen is described as the "Red-Tailed Waterhen (Gallinula phoenicurus)".

Encyclopedia of Life. (n.d.). White-breasted Water Hen - Amaurornis phoenicurus - Synonyms - Encyclopedia of Life. Available at: http://eol.org/pages/915925/names/synonyms Accessed 11 November 2018.

This is because "Gallinula phoenicurus" was its species name when it was originally described, but it was later revised and placed in a new genus, hence it has the name "Amaurornis phoenicurus" today.

Encyclopedia of Life. (n.d.). White-breasted Water Hen - Amaurornis phoenicurus - Synonyms - Encyclopedia of Life. Available at: http://eol.org/pages/915925/names/synonyms Accessed 11 November 2018.

Type

The White-breasted Waterhen (Amaurornis phoenicurus) was originally described by Pennant in 1769, using a syntype series consisting of four syntypes.

Gray, G. (1844). List of the specimens of birds in the collection of the British Museum. 3rd ed. London: Printed by the order of the Trustees, p.123

The syntypes can be found in the Natural History Museum in London, under the name "Red-Tailed Waterhen (Gallinula phoenicurus)" (Images not available).

Gray, G. (1844). List of the specimens of birds in the collection of the British Museum. 3rd ed. London: Printed by the order of the Trustees, p.123

Scientific Classification

A hierarchical summary of the taxa within which the White-breasted Waterhen is placed is provided below:

 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. (2018). White-breasted Waterhen. Available at: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/22692640/95217833#geographic-range Accessed 11 November 2018.


Animalia
   Chordata
      Aves 
         Gruiformes 
            Rallidae 
               Amaurornis 
                  Amaurornis phoenicurus (Pennant, 1769)

Phylogenetic Relationships

The White-breasted Waterhen belongs to the family Rallidae, also known as the "family of wading birds".

Ruan, L., Wang, Y., Hu, J. and Ouyang, Y. (2012). Polyphyletic Origin of the Genus Amaurornis Inferred from Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Rails. Biochemical Genetics, 50(11-12), pp.959-966.

It also belongs to the genus Amaurornis and according to prior morphological analyses, this genus is considered polyphyletic (derived from more than one common evolutionary ancestor or ancestral group).

Ruan, L., Wang, Y., Hu, J. and Ouyang, Y. (2012). Polyphyletic Origin of the Genus Amaurornis Inferred from Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Rails. Biochemical Genetics, 50(11-12), pp.959-966.

Taxonomic Confusion

Species of birds found in the genus Porzana are often confused with the species found in Amaurornis because the distinctions between these two genera are poorly defined and this often leads to confusion.

Ruan, L., Wang, Y., Hu, J. and Ouyang, Y. (2012). Polyphyletic Origin of the Genus Amaurornis Inferred from Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Rails. Biochemical Genetics, 50(11-12), pp.959-966.

There have also been instances where some species of Amaurornis were previously placed in Porzana and vice versa.

Ruan, L., Wang, Y., Hu, J. and Ouyang, Y. (2012). Polyphyletic Origin of the Genus Amaurornis Inferred from Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Rails. Biochemical Genetics, 50(11-12), pp.959-966.


To resolve this confusion, a study was conducted in 2012 to determine the phylogenetic relationships among the Asian rails found in Rallidae.

Ruan, L., Wang, Y., Hu, J. and Ouyang, Y. (2012). Polyphyletic Origin of the Genus Amaurornis Inferred from Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Rails. Biochemical Genetics, 50(11-12), pp.959-966.

This study was conducted using mitochondrial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (CYTB) sequences.

Ruan, L., Wang, Y., Hu, J. and Ouyang, Y. (2012). Polyphyletic Origin of the Genus Amaurornis Inferred from Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Rails. Biochemical Genetics, 50(11-12), pp.959-966.

The sequences were aligned using Clustal W, Maximum Parsimony analysis and Bayesian analysis and the tree in Figure 17 was obtained.

Ruan, L., Wang, Y., Hu, J. and Ouyang, Y. (2012). Polyphyletic Origin of the Genus Amaurornis Inferred from Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Rails. Biochemical Genetics, 50(11-12), pp.959-966.


Figure 17: Maximum likelihood tree. Numbers over branches reflect branch support obtained from maximum parsimony/Bayesian/maximum likelihood analyses. 

Ruan, L., Wang, Y., Hu, J. and Ouyang, Y. (2012). Polyphyletic Origin of the Genus Amaurornis Inferred from Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Rails. Biochemical Genetics, 50(11-12), pp.959-966.


Seventeen species of birds were used for the analyses, namely the Brown Crake (Amaurornis akool), Baillon’s Crake (Porzana pusilla), Ruddy-breasted Crake (Porzana fusca), Band-bellied Crake (Porzana paykullii), Watercock (Gallicrex cinerea), White-breasted Waterhen (Amaurornis phoenicurus), Slaty-legged Crake (Rallina eurizonoides), Swinhoe’s Crake (Coturnicops exquisitus), Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus), Common Coot (Fulica atra), Slaty-breasted Rail (Gallirallus striatus), Okinawa Rail (Gallirallus okinawae), Water Rail (Rallus aquaticus) and the outgroups comprising of the Siberian Crane (Grus leucogeranus), Great Bustard (Otis tarda), Northern Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus) and Yellow-legged Buttonquail (Turnix tanki).

Ruan, L., Wang, Y., Hu, J. and Ouyang, Y. (2012). Polyphyletic Origin of the Genus Amaurornis Inferred from Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Rails. Biochemical Genetics, 50(11-12), pp.959-966.


Four well supported clades were obtained from the study (Clade 1 to 4 in Figure 17 respectively), and thus the study was able to resolve the phylogenetic relationships amongst the rails studied.

Ruan, L., Wang, Y., Hu, J. and Ouyang, Y. (2012). Polyphyletic Origin of the Genus Amaurornis Inferred from Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Rails. Biochemical Genetics, 50(11-12), pp.959-966.

They were also able to confirm that the genus Amaurornis was polyphyletic and show that the closest relative to the White-breasted Waterhen (Amaurornis phoenicurus) was the Watercock (Gallicrex cinerea) (Figure 17).

Ruan, L., Wang, Y., Hu, J. and Ouyang, Y. (2012). Polyphyletic Origin of the Genus Amaurornis Inferred from Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Rails. Biochemical Genetics, 50(11-12), pp.959-966.




References

This page was authored by Sameen
Last curated on 7th December 2018