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Image 1: Dorsal view of a banded file snake (Acrochordus granulatus) taken in Chek Jawa. Photo Courtesy to Ria Tan and Wild Singapore.


Table of Contents

Name & Etymology

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Scientific Name: Acrochordus granulatus
Common Names: Banded file snake, little wart snake, marine file snake, little file snake

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. Currently other accepted synonyms forAcrochordus granulatusincludesChersydrus granulatus. A list of synonyms forAcrochordus granulatuscan be foundhere.


Description

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Image 3: Ventral midline of Acrochordus granulatus. The ventral scutes projects down from the midline and forms a compresses keel, aiding it in swimming. Photo Courtesy of Ria Tan and Wild Singapore.

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Footnote Macro

Lillywhite, Harvey B. 1991. The Biology and Conservation of Acrochordid Snakes. Hamadryad, 16, 1–9.

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Geographic Range & Habitat

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Image 5: Geographic distribution range of Acrochordus granulatus. The red dots indicates presence of A. granulatus. Computer Generated Map for Acrochordus granulatus (un-reviewed). www.aquamaps.org, version of Aug. 2010. Web. Accessed 29 Oct. 2011.

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Footnote Macro

Ng, T.H. 2011. A record of the banded file snake, Acrochordus granulatus (Reptilia: Squamata: Acrochordidae) in a freshwater habitat in Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 4, 91-93.

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Biology

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Feeding Habits


Acrochordus granulatus appears to specialize on gobiid and goby-like fishes. Analysis of its stomach contents indicate that crustaceans may be eaten occasionally. Acrochordus granulatus hunt its prey by seizing its prey rapidly with the mouth or by swiftly ensnaring its prey in coils of the body or tail. The body is then quickly wrapped around the prey to subdue and to hold it. Even though Acrochordus granulatus are considered constrictors, the body coils function to hold and immobilize prey rather than to cause death by constricting. Captured fish are swallowed very quickly, thus little water is ingested with prey

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There is currently no known function of the banded patterns on the body of Acrochordus granulatus. However, it is sometimes mistaken as the highly venomous Yellow-lipped Sea Snake (Laticauda colubrina). Click here to know how to tell apart Acrochordus granulatus with the Yellow-lipped Sea Snake (Laticauda colubrina).

Reproduction


All three species of the Genus Acrochordus appear to have seasonal reproductive cycles, even though they are active year-round in tropical habitats. These snakes are viviparous, and their young are born alive. Gestation begins in the middle of the year, and birth usually occurs in December. Evidence suggests that female Acrochordus granulatus do not give birth every year, with its reproductive frequency around once every two years. The litter size of Acrochordus granulatus averages around 5 offsprings. No parental care is observed for captive Acrochordus granulatus. Females are also able to delay conception and hold sperm until suitable birth conditions are met

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Footnote Macro

Houston, D., Shine, R. 1994. Movements And Activity Patterns of Arafura File Snakes (Serpentes: Acrochordidae) In Tropical Australia. Herpetologica, 50, 349-357.

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Conservation

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According to The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the red list category & criteria of Acrochordus granulatus is listed as least concerned

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. Other potential threats to Acrochordus granulatusare related to physical disturbances of rivers, estuaries, and wetlands and to various forms of water pollution. However, the effect of such factors on the distribution and abundance of Acrochordus granulatus is almost totally unknown and is in need of evaluation.


Taxonavigation

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Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Acrochordidae
Genus: Acrochordus
Species: Acrochordus granulatus

Currently there is only one Genus under the Family Acrochordidae, with three extant species, namely the Banded File Snake (Acrochordus granulatus), the Elephant Trunk Snake (Acrochordus javanicus), and the Arafura File Snake (Acrochordus arafurae). A fourth extinct species in the Genus Acrochordusis known that existed in the Upper Miocene and Lower Pliocene epochs of Pakistan. There are currently no Acrochordus granulatus subspecies recognized

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Footnote Macro

McDowell, S. B. 1979. A Catalogue of the Snakes of New Guinea and the Solomons, with Special Reference to Those in the Bernice P. Bishop Museum: Part III, Boinae and Acrochordoidea (Reptilia, Serpentes). Journal of Herpetology, 13, 1–92.

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Type Information

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The type information here illustrates the name-bearing type (under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the biological type that determines the application of the particular taxon's name) and the type locality, which is the geographic location of where the particular specimen is found. A holotype, in this case, is a particular specimen which is used to formally describe that species. In most of the case, the holotype is then preserved under strict conditions in a museum. However, the type information for Acrochordus granulatus is currently unknown.

Types (Holotype): Unknown (fide Sang et al., 2009)
Type Locality: Not given (fide Manthey & Grossmann, 1997); “Madras, India” (fide Sang et al., 2009)

References

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Display Footnotes Macro


Additional Comments

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