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Figure 10. Three types of flower interactions between H. itama and plants documented in the Singapore Botanic Gardens. 10a: Nectar robbing from Clerodendron thomsoniae. Note length of style; 10b: Nectar drinking from flower stalk of Tabernaemontana divaricata; 10c: Nectar drinking from Antigonon leptopus. Note proximity of anthers and stigma to H. itama head. © 2014 S. X. Chui.

Effectiveness as pollinators


 Stingless bee species have differing maximum foraging distances, and individual colonies discover the presence of transient, patchy resources independently of each other, thus allowing for spatial and temporal niches.

Status in Singapore return to top