Figure 14. Original description of the Asian Common Toad as described by Schneider in 1799. Asian Common Toad was filed under the section x. Melanotietus in the original description. (Source: Schneider, 1799
Schneider, J. G. (1799). Historia Amphibiorum Naturalis et Literarariae. Fasciculus Primus. Continens Ranas, Calamitas, Bufones, Salamandras et Hydros in Genera et Species Descriptos Notisque suis Distinctos. Jena: Friederici Frommanni. 216
The original description of the Asian Common Toad was by Schneider in 1799 (Figure 14) who filed the species under the name Bufo melanostictus. Certain details regarding his description is summarized as followed (words that could not be translated by Google Translate remain in its original latin form and is italicized):
"Warts top dorfiet joints of body gray color, atropunetatae, limbus side of the head jaw fuperioris black, plants femipalmatae, the tips of the fingers black.
From 'India orientali' Museum Blochianum, gray color, warts capital, artuumque denfae, most planiusculae, black dot, eragainst both sides of colors, gray, the distance between the eyes depreffum, smooth, exftantis orbital margins, edging back toward the black tympanum until it runs out, antrorfum defeendens on both sides of the nose coit. Idom is surrounded by a fringe cheek fuperiorem, Likewise tips of the fingers and palm calluses two black plantarumque.
Another example of the Mufei, where under his name Chinenfis bufunis proftabat color fundum had to fufeum more inclining, Derfor tiny black spots and unaffected." (translated using Google translate)
Schneider's original description lacks accurate morphological details needed to properly determine the Asian Common Toad. This can pose potential problems in identification from other similar looking cryptic species.
Figure 18. Phylogenetic relationship of the Asian Common Toad (listed as Bufo melanostictus in this tree) in the family Bufonidae. A general phylogenetic tree constructed from the consensus of four most parsimonious trees. (Source: Frost Frost, et.,al., 2006
Frost D, Grant T, Faivovich J, Bain R, Haas A,Haddad C, de Sá R, Channing A, Wilkinson M,Donnellan S, Raxworthy C, Campbell J, Blotto B, Moler P, Drewes R, Nussbaum R, Lynch J,Green D, Wheeler W. (2006). The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 297: 1–370.
. Copyright from the American Museum National History 2006.)
Figure 19. Maximum Parsimony tree derived from 3080 mt DNA bp having 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA sequences from different Bufo species, number at the nodes represent percentage replicate trees in whih the associated taxa clustered together in bootstrap test (Source: Dutta Dutta & Das, 2013
Dutta, D., & Das, S. K. (2013). Phylogenetic Relationship of Duttaphrynus melanostictus From India and China as Revealed from the Study of 12S and 16S mtDNA Genes. International Journal of Zoological Research, 9(2), 49.
- Generalist - Species that are able to thrive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and can make use of a variety of different resources.
- Bufotoxin - Moderately potent poison secreted in the skin of many anuran amphibians, especially in the typical toads (genus Bufo)
- Plasticity - Adaptability of an organism to changes in its environment or differences between its various habitats.
- Predation risk - The effect of the absence or presence of predators that feed on its prey
- Opportunistic feeding - Species that are able to sustain itself on different food sources
- Spermatogenic cycle - Process of the production of sperms; the male reproductive cell.
- Amplexus - A type of mating behavior in which males grasps a female with his front legs during which the male fertilizes the female eggs as they are released from the body
- Polygynandry - Reproductive strategy that occurs when two or more males have an exclusive sexual relationship with two or more females.
- Metamorphosis - biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.
- Holotype - single physical example (or illustration) of an organism, known to have been used when the species (or lower-ranked taxon) was formally described.
- Maximum parsimony tree - has an optimality criterion whereby the phylogenetic tree that minimizes the total number of character-state changes is chosen.