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Footnote Macro

McDowell, S. B. 1979. A Catalogue of the Snakes of New Guinea and the Solomons, with Special Reference to Those in the Bernice P. Bishop Museum: Part III, Boinae and Acrochordoidea (Reptilia, Serpentes). Journal of Herpetology, 13, 1–92.

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Members of the Genus Acrochordus are distinguished by a very loose skin and supple musculature that allow strong lateral compression and enable these snakes to seize and hold struggling fish. The ventral scutes are very small and project downward at the midline to form a compressed ventral keel during swimming. The loose skin enhances mobility beneath water but sags noticeably when a snake is out of water, hence reducing its mobility on land. The skin is prominent in being roughened by spines or tubercles that project from each of the numerous small scales covering the body. These scales enable grasping of fish and are sensory. A bundle of bristle-like structures is present in the dome of the tubercles, and the base of this structure is richly supplied with nerves. The skin between the small scales may be developed into smaller bristle-bearing tubercles. These are presumed to be sense organs that detect mechanical stimuli and aid in movement, orientation, and the capture of fish in waters where visibility can be extremely limited. Heads of the Acrochordus species are blunt and not clearly distinguishable from the neck. Valved nostrils are located at the dorsal anterior of the snout, enabling these snakes to periodically breathe atmospheric air while the remainder of the body remains underwater

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Footnote Macro

McDowell, S. B. 1979. A Catalogue of the Snakes of New Guinea and the Solomons, with Special Reference to Those in the Bernice P. Bishop Museum: Part III, Boinae and Acrochordoidea (Reptilia, Serpentes). Journal of Herpetology, 13, 1–92.

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Image 4: A drawing of the head of Acrochordus granulatus. The head of A.granulatus is indistinct from its neck, and the nostrils are located at the dorsal anterior (top-front) of the head, allowing it to breathe easy through the water surface. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

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. It is also smaller in size, where adults average 50–70 cm and grow to a maximum length of approximately 1 m. The other species are nearly twice this size, the Arafura File Snake reaching a maximum length of approximately 1.7 m and the Java file snake reaching a maximum length of 2 m

Footnote Macro

Lillywhite, Harvey B. 1991. The Biology and Conservation of Acrochordid Snakes. Hamadryad, 16, 1–9.

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Footnote Macro

Voris, Harold K., Glodek, G.S. 1980. Habitat, Diet and Reproduction of the File Snake,Acrochordus granulatus, in the Straits of Malacca. Journal of Herpetology, 14, 105–108..

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Acrochordus granulatus are noncturnal hunters, and have been observed to forage in shallow waters

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