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Footnote Macro

A. R. Pittaway, “Sphingidae of the Western Palaearctic,” 1997-2013. [Online]. Available: tpittaway.tripod.com/sphinx. [Accessed 9 September 2013].

Ovum

The eggs of D. nerii are almost spherical and about
1.5 mm in diameter. They are generally pale green in
colour with a smooth chorion that is shiny.
Image Modified
© Photograph by A. R. Pittaway
Larva (first instar):


The caterpillars are about 3 to 4 mm in length when they 
first hatch and are bright yellow in colour. They possess 
a long, thin, black horn on their posterior which tapers
towards the end.
Image Modified
© Photograph by A. R. Pittaway
Larva (second instar):

After the first moult, a pair of dorso-lateral lines start
to appear on the first abdominal segment to the last. 
The larva assumes an apple-green colour and the 
tail horn gains a white tip. Eye-spots start to appear 
on the third thoracic segment.
Image Modified
© Photograph by A. R. Pittaway
Larva (third instar):


The eye-spots become more pronounced and the 
white lateral lines separate into circles with a pale 
blue ring with a white centre,outlined by black.
The spiracles become an obvious black.
Image Modified
© Photograph by A. R. Pittaway
Larva (fourth instar): 

The walking legs begin to turn pink and the tail horn 
becomes yellow instead of black. The lateral lines seem
to consist a more dorsal band of yellow and below that a
band of pale blue with the ringed circles as in earlier instars.
Image Modified
© Photograph by A. R. Pittaway
Larva (final instar): 

The tapered horn becomes rounded and bulbous with 
bright yellow colouration. As it comes closer to pupating, 
the larva changes from green to brown as shown on the
right. The white spots of the dorso-lateral line remain as 
in the earlier instars
Image Modified
Photograph by Melissa Teo
Image Modified



Photograph by Melissa Teo
Pupa

Pupae are cream coloured when freshly moulted, but eventually darken as they harden to a light wood brown. They are generally about 60 to 75 mm in length with a prominent black line bisecting the ventral head and thorax region which demarcates the future proboscis. The caterpillars sometimes make cocoons out of leaves before pupating.
Image Modified
Photograph by Melissa Teo
Image Modified
Photograph by Melissa Teo



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Taxonomy:

Ø Classification

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